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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-June 2018
Volume 13 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 181-287

Online since Monday, April 16, 2018

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Preparation and characterization of an injectable thermosensitive hydrogel for simultaneous delivery of paclitaxel and doxorubicin p. 181
Mahboubeh Rezazadeh, Vajihe Akbari, Elham Amuaghae, Jaber Emami
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228918  PMID:29853928
In the current study, we aimed to develop a novel injectable thermosensitive hydrogel for simultaneous intra-tumoral administration of paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). At first, mixed micelles composed of Pluronic F127 and α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was loaded with PTX and their physicochemical properties including particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, entrapment efficiency, and the drug release were investigated in details. In the second step, the optimized PTX-loaded micelles prepared in the first step were incorporated into the thermosensitive Pluronic F127/hyaluronic acid (PF127/HA) hydrogel containing fixed amount of DOX. Gel formation temperature, rheological properties, injectability, degradation rates of the hydrogel, and the release rate of PTX and DOX from the hydrogel were examined. The mean particle sizes and zeta potentials of the PTX-loaded micelles were 157.5 ± 20.1 nm and -9.6 ± 1.1 mV, respectively. The entrapment efficiency of the formulation was about 51%. The hydrogel containing PTX-loaded micelles and DOX existed as a solution with low viscosity at 4 °C converted to a semisolid upon increasing the temperature to 35 °C. DOX was completely released from the hydrogel within 12 h, while 40-80% of PTX could be released from the different formulations during 3 days. This novel thermosensitive hydrogel prepared in the current study could be efficiently used for co-delivery of PTX and DOX in solid tumor types.
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Probing the chemical interaction space governed by 4-amino-substituted benzenesulfonamides and carbonic anhydrase isoforms p. 192
Behnam Rasti, Yeganeh Entezari Heravi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228940  PMID:29853929
Isoform diversity, critical physiological roles and involvement in major diseases/disorders such as glaucoma, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, and cancers have made carbonic anhydrase (CA), one of the most interesting case studies in the field of computer aided drug design. Since applying non-selective inhibitors can result in major side effects, there have been considerable efforts so far to achieve selective inhibitors for different isoforms of CA. Using proteochemometrics approach, the chemical interaction space governed by a group of 4-amino-substituted benzenesulfonamides and human CAs has been explored in the present study. Several validation methods have been utilized to assess the validity, robustness and predictivity power of the proposed proteochemometric model. Our model has offered major structural information that can be applied to design new selective inhibitors for distinct isoforms of CA. To prove the applicability of the proposed model, new compounds have been designed based on the offered discriminative structural features.
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Anxiolytic effects of Lippia citriodora in a mouce model of anxiety p. 205
Atousa Bonyani, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Mohammad Rabbani
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228941  PMID:29853930
Lippia citriodora is commonly used in Iranian folk medicine for treatment of many disorders. Since there scientific data to prove the anxiolytic properties of this plant in Iran are scarce, we aimed to evaluate the sedative and anxiolytic activity of the leaf extract and essence of L. citriodora in an animal model of anxiety. The extract and the essence used were obtained after maceration and hydro-distillation of the leaves of L. citriodora, respectively. We evaluated the anti-anxiety profile and sedative activity of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. as the standard), hydroethanolic extract (200 and 400 mg/kg i.p.) and the essence (10, 15, and 50 mg/kg i.p.) of leaves of L. citriodora using elevated plus-maze and locomotor activity. We also used flumazenil, to find out if the possible effects are mediated through gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor complex. The results showed that the essence of L. citriodora at a dose of 15 mg/kg is the most effective anxiolytic dose. Interestingly, flumazenil reversed this action of the essence as well as that of diazepam. The extract even at a dose of 400 mg/kg did not show significant anxiolytic effect. In locomotor activity studies, the essence caused sedation to a lesser extent than diazepam. The results suggest that the essence of this plant could be a better candidate for further analysis and fractionation. As the anxiolytic effect of the essence is reversed by flumazenil, it is possible that the GABA receptor could be involved in mediating these effects.
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Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and docking studies of some novel quinazolinone Schiff base derivatives p. 213
Rezvan Rezaee Nasab, Farshid Hassanzadeh, Mahboubeh Mansourian
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228942  PMID:29853931
The quinazolin-4(3H)-one structural motif possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. DNA gyrase play an important role in induction of bacterial death. It has been shown that many quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives have antibacterial effects through inhibition of DNA gyrase. Based on this information we decided to synthesize novel quinazolinone Schiff base derivatives in order to evaluate their antibacterial effects. A series of novel quinazolinone Schiff base derivatives were designed and synthesized from benzoic acid. The potential DNA gyrase inhibitory activity of these compounds was investigated using in silico molecular docking simulation. All new synthesized derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activities against three species of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella entritidis and three species of Gram-positive bacteria comprising of Staphylococcus aurous, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocitogenes as well as for antifungal activities against Candida albicans using the conventional micro dilution method. Most of the compounds have shown good antibacterial activities, especially against E. coli at 128 μg/mL concentration while no remarkable antifungal activities were observed for these compounds. All the synthesized compounds exhibit dock score values between -5.96 and -8.58 kcal/mol. The highest dock score among them was -8.58 kcal/mol for compound 4c.
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Bioprocess and downstream optimization of recombinant human growth hormone in Pichia pastoris p. 222
Saeed Azadi, Seyed Kazem Sadjady, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi, Nasser Naghdi, Arash Mahboubi, Roya Solaimanian
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228953  PMID:29853932
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a well-established expression host, which is often used in the production of protein pharmaceuticals. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of ascorbic acid in mixed feeding strategy with sorbitol/methanol on productivity of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The relevant concentration of ascorbic acid (5, 10, or 20 mmol) and 50 g/L sorbitol were added in batch-wise mode to the medium at the beginning of induction phase. The rate of methanol addition was increased stepwise during the first 12 h of production and then kept constant. Total protein and r-hGH concentrations were analyzed and the results compared with sorbitol/methanol feeding using one-way analysis of variance. Moreover, an effective clarification process using activated carbon was developed to remove process contaminants like pigments and endotoxins. Finally, a three-step chromatographic process was applied to purify the product. According to the obtained results, addition of 10 mmol ascorbic acid to sorbitol/methanol co-feeding could significantly increase cell biomass (1.7 fold), total protein (1.14 fold), and r-hGH concentration (1.43 fold). One percent activated carbon could significantly decrease pigments and endotoxins without any significant changes in r-hGH assay. The result of the study concluded that ascorbic acid in combination with sorbitol could effectively enhance the productivity of r-hGH. This study also demonstrated that activated carbon clarification is a simple method for efficient removal of endotoxin and pigment in production of recombinant protein in the yeast expression system.
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A study on OPG/RANK/RANKL axis in osteoporotic bile duct-ligated rats and the involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems p. 239
Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Mojgan Alaeddini, Sattar Ostadhadi, Abolfazl Golestani
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228954  PMID:29853933
Chronic liver disease (CLD) affects millions of people and its impact on bone loss has become a subject of interest. Nitric oxide and endogenous opioids are suggested to increase during cholestasis/cirrhosis and may impact bone resorption by different mechanisms. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK)/RANK-ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling pathway regulates bone resorption, but its role in metabolic bone disease subsequent to CLD is unknown. We aimed to investigate the involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems in bone loss relative to the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway, in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Eighty BDL/sham-operated (SO) rats received injections of 3 mg/kg/day Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester ± naltrexone (10 mg/kg/day) or saline for 28 days. Plasma bone turnover markers, OPG, RANK, and RANKL along with mRNA expression levels of the latter three were assessed. Plasma bone turnover markers and OPG level increased, but RANKL decreased in the BDL group compared with their SO controls (both: P ≤ 0.05). Administration of naltrexone reduced bone turnover markers and OPG level while increased RANKL content in comparison to BDL rats (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to untreated BDL rats, nitric oxide inhibition showed no effect on bone turnover marker i.e. OPG, RANK, and RANKL levels. BDL significantly increased RANK mRNA, but had no significant effect on RANKL and OPG mRNA expression. The lack of association between plasma levels and quantitative gene expression of RANKL and OPG suggests an indirect function of these markers in BDL rats. Considering that opioid receptor blockage by naltrexone in BDL animals caused a significant decrease in OPG and an increase in RANKL plasma contents, it could be postulated that the opioidergic system may have a regulatory effect on these bone markers.
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Development, physicochemical characterization, and antimicrobial evaluation of niosomal myrtle essential oil p. 250
Mahboobeh Raeiszadeh, Abbas Pardakhty, Fariba Sharififar, Alireza Farsinejad, Mehrnaz Mehrabani, Hossein Hosseini-nave, Mitra Mehrabani
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228955  PMID:29853934
Myrtus communis (myrtle) is well known for its therapeutic effects pertaining to the major secondary metabolites including essential oils (EOs). EOs are composed of volatile compounds and simply evaporate or decompose leading to their instability. Preparation of EOs niosomal formulation may be a promising approach to deal with these obstacles. Niosomal formulations of myrtle essential oil (nMEO) were provided using non-ionic surfactants and cholesterol (Chol). In the next steps, vesicle size, zeta potential, percentage of entrapment efficiency (EE%) and physical stability of nMEO were investigated. Finally, the effect of myrtle essential oil (MEO) and nMEO on microbial growth inhibition were assessed. Values for nMEO size and zeta potential ranged from 6.17 ± 0.32 to 7.24 ± 0.61 (μm) and -20.41 ± 0.17 to -31.75 ± 0.45 (mV), respectively. Higher degrees of EE% were obtained by F6 formulation (Span/Tween 60:Chol (50:50 molar ratio)). Moreover, niosomes have been reported to be stable at 4 °C during a three-month time period. It was revealed that nMEO F6 formulation inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus subtilis at concentrations lower than that of MEO. Overall, it was found that stable multilamellar vesicles were formed in the presence of 0.5% MEO and F6 formulation. This formulation also exhibited better antibacterial activity than MEO.
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Synthesis and evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of (Z)-4-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino)-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives in mice p. 262
Marzieh Rahmani Khajouei, Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani, Aref Moradi, Alireza Aliabadi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228956  PMID:29853935
Due to resistance of some epileptic patients to the current medications and the general incidence of severe side effects of these drugs, development and discovery of novel antiepileptic drugs is crucial. Isatin-based derivatives are promising compounds as antiepileptic agents. In this study a new series of isatin-containing derivatives were synthesized via the imine formation between isatin and p-aminobenzoic acid. Subsequently, the obtained acidic compound was utilized to prepare the final amidic derivatives (4a-4l) through the reaction with various aniline derivatives. Then, their anti-seizure activity was investigated using maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models in mice. Neurotoxicity of target compounds was also determined by rotarod test. Tested isatin-based derivatives exhibited a favorable protection in both MES and PTZ procedures with high safety levels in neurotoxicity test. The introduced derivatives have demonstrated remarkable activity in mice and could be suggested as potential anticonvulsant lead compounds. All methoxylated derivatives (4j, 4k, 4l) showed a significant anti-seizure activity in MES model. Compounds 4j (2-OCH3) and 4l (4-OCH3) also demonstrated a potent anti-seizure activity against PTZ. Compound 4k (m-OCH3) did not induce protection towards PTZ-induced convulsion.
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Preparation, process optimization and characterization of core-shell polyurethane/chitosan nanofibers as a potential platform for bioactive scaffolds p. 273
Laleh Maleknia, Mandana Dilamian, Mohammad Kazemi Pilehrood, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Amir Houshang Hekmati
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228957  PMID:29853936
In this paper, polyurethane (PU), chitosan (Cs)/polyethylene oxide (PEO), and core-shell PU/Cs nanofibers were produced at the optimal processing conditions using electrospinning technique. Several methods including SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA and image analysis were utilized to characterize these nanofibrous structures. SEM images exhibited that the core-shell PU/Cs nanofibers were spun without any structural imperfections at the optimized processing conditions. TEM image confirmed the PU/Cs core-shell nanofibers were formed apparently. It that seems the inclusion of Cs/PEO to the shell, did not induce the significant variations in the crystallinity in the core-shell nanofibers. DSC analysis showed that the inclusion of Cs/PEO led to the glass temperature of the composition increased significantly compared to those of neat PU nanofibers. The thermal degradation of core-shell PU/Cs was similar to PU nanofibers degradation due to the higher PU concentration compared to other components. It was hypothesized that the core-shell PU/Cs nanofibers can be used as a potential platform for the bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering. Further biological tests should be conducted to evaluate this platform as a three dimensional scaffold with the capabilities of releasing the bioactive molecules in a sustained manner.
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The effect of different coating materials on the prevention of powder bounce in the next generation impactor p. 283
Shadi Farshbaf Khalili, Saeed Ghanbarzadeh, Ali Nokhodchi, Hamed Hamishehkar
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.228958  PMID:29853937
In the process of quality control of pulmonary drug delivery products, aerosolization efficiency is mainly determined using impactors, e.g. next generation impactor (NGI). However, particle bounce may interfere with the validity and accuracy of results due to the overestimation of the respirable fraction. It is suggested that the coating of impactor's stages may prevent the particle bounce. Therefore, coating materials may influence the results of the aerosolization indexes of pulmonary dosage forms. The aim of this study was to investigate if the aerosolization indices are affected differently by using the different coating materials. In this study, the effects of using different materials including Span® 85, Tween® 80, silicon® oil, glycerin and Brij® 35/glycerin mixture recommended for the coating of NGI stages on the aerosolization indices such as fine particle fraction, fine particle dose, mass median aerodynamic diameter, and geometric standard deviation of salbutamol emitted from a commercial metered dose inhaler (MDI), were assessed. Three statistically different results were obtained on using Tween® 80, Span® 85 and silicon oil, and glycerin and Brij®35/glycerin mixture. It can be concluded that the type of coating material influenced the aerosolization indices of the examined MDI in NGIs.
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