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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-August 2019
Volume 14 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 286-377

Online since Thursday, August 8, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Preparation of pentagamaboronon-0 and its fructose and sorbitol complexes as boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application Highly accessed article p. 286
Ratna Asmah Susidarti, Rohmad Yudi Utomo, Lailatul Qodria, Ratna Dwi Ramadani, Youichiro Ohta, Yoshihide Hattori, Mitsunori Kirihata, Edy Meiyanto
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263552  
Development of specific and selective boron carriers is indispensable for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application. Pentagamaboronon-0 (PGB-0) is a promising candidate as boron carrier compound due to the low but selective cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. Formerly we reported synthesis of PGB-0 which was ineffective due to its low aqueous solubility. In the present study, we, therefore, introduced the new PGB-0 preparation complexed with sugars to increase its solubility in water. By synthesizing at room temperature and using flash chromatography for the purification, we produced PGB-0 with a yield of 40%. PGB-0 fructose complex (PGB-0-F) and PGB-0 sorbitol complex (PGB-0-Sor) were obtained with smaller particle size compared to PGB-0 suspension in water. Based on the MTT assay, the cytotoxicity of PGB-0-F and PGB-0-Sor were higher than PGB-0 even though still categorized as low cytotoxic agents. In conclusion, we provided PGB-0 with a new method and improved its solubility in water. Further investigations are still needed to develop more efficient PGB-0 as boron carrier for BNCT in various cancers.
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Preparation and optimization of polymeric micelles as an oral drug delivery system for deferoxamine mesylate: in vitro and ex vivo studies p. 293
Anayatollah Salimi, Behzad Sharif Makhmal Zadeh, Moloud Kazemi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263554  
Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is administered as a slow subcutaneous or intravenous infusion due to its poor oral bioavailability and lack of dose proportionality. The aim of the present study was to prepare and optimize polymeric micelles containing DFO, as an oral drug delivery system for increasing permeability and oral bioavailability. Based on a full factorial design with three variables in two levels, eight polymeric micelle formulations were made using film hydration method. Two polymers including 0.1% of carbomer 934 and Poloxamer® P 407 and two blends of surfactant + co-surfactant including 1 and 2 fold of critical micelle concentration of Labrafil® + Labrasol® and Tween 80 + Span 20 were used to prepare polymeric micelles. The effect of variables on particle size (PS), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug release, thermal behavior, in vitro iron bonding and ex vivo rat intestinal permeability were evaluated. The PS of polymeric micelles was less than 83 nm that showed 80% EE with continuous drug release pattern. The change in type of polymer from carbomer to Ploxamer® significantly increased drug release. All polymeric micelles increased the iron-bonding ability of DFO compared to control. This could be due to surfactants that can play an important role in this ability. Polymeric micelles increased drug permeability through intestine more than 2.5 folds compared to control mainly affected by polymer type. Optimized polymeric micelle consists of Tween 80 and Span 20 with 1.35 folds of critical micelle concentration and Poloxamer® demonstrated 97.32% iron bonding and a 3-fold increase in permeation through the rat intestine compared with control.
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Nicotine, as a novel tolerogenic adjuvant, enhances the efficacy of immunotherapy in a mouse model of allergic asthma p. 308
Ebrahim Mazloomi, Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh, Ahad Zare, Adel Mohammadzadeh, Nowruz Delirezh, Shahram Shahabi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263555  
An increasing trend in the incidence of allergic diseases including asthma and related morbidity and mortality is observed worldwide during the last decades. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is suggested for the treatment of some allergic diseases; nevertheless, there is always a menace of uncommon, but life-treating reactions due to increasing the administration of allergen extract doses. Hence, improving its efficacy may reduce the required doses as well as the risk of such reactions. The current study aimed at examining the effects of nicotine (NIC), as a tolerogenic adjuvant, on the improvement of immunotherapy efficacy in a mouse model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized using alum and ovalbumin (OVA) on the days 0 and 7. Mice received OVA either alone or together with NIC (1 or 10 mg/kg) on the days 21, 23, and 25. Then, the mice were challenged with OVA 5% using a nebulizer on the days 35, 38, and 41 and sacrificed the next day. Co-administration of OVA and NIC decreased the inflammation of the lung tissue, eosinophils count in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, the serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, as well as interleukin (IL)-4 production, while increasing the population of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells (Treg cells) and transforming growth factor-β/IL-4 (TGF-β/IL-4) ratio compared to the OVA and control groups in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, the findings suggest that administration of NIC plus the allergen increased immunotherapy efficacy through decreasing allergic inflammation and allergic responses intensity, and increasing Treg cells population.
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Expression, purification, and cytotoxic evaluation of IL24-BR2 fusion protein p. 320
Marjan Pourhadi, Fahimeh Jamalzade, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Fatemeh Shafiee
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263556  
Interleukin (IL) 24 is a pro-inflammatory and tumor suppressor cytokine capable of inducing selective apoptosis in various cancer cells. BR2, on the other hand, is an anti-microbial peptide with selective penetrability to the cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to produce and purify a fusion protein containing IL24 as the toxic moiety fused to BR2, as targeting moiety, and then to evaluate its cytotoxic activities. For this purpose, the coding sequence of IL24-BR2 fusion protein and IL24 were cloned into the pET28a vector and used to transform E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Following induction of expression, protein purification performed using Ni-NTA chromatography. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed to confirm the expression and purification. Finally, cytotoxic effects of the purified proteins were evaluated on MCF-7 and HUVEC cell lines. Analysis of crude lysate of induced recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) bacteria and also purified proteins showed a band of approximately 22 and 18 KDa on SDS-PAGE and western blotting for IL24-BR2 and IL24, respectively. Finally, statistical analysis showed significant cytotoxic effects of IL24-BR2 on MCF-7 cells at 10, 20, and 40 µg/mL concentrations compared to IL24 alone, which showed no significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cells except in the highest concentration. In conclusion, production and purification of IL24-BR2 fusion protein with potential specific toxicity toward cancer cells was successfully achieved. However, further investigation of the cytotoxic effects of this fusion protein on other cell lines and in vivo cancer models must be performed.
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Sesquiterpene lactones from shoot culture of Artemisia aucheri with cytotoxicity against prostate and breast cancer cells p. 329
Jalil Abbaspour, Ali Akbar Ehsanpour, Mahmoud Aghaei, Mustafa Ghanadian
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263557  
Plant tissue culture is used to grow plant cells, tissues, or organs under sterile and determined conditions on culture media. It is alternative to traditional vegetative propagation, and is applied as an effective technology for the production of valuable secondary metabolites. The Artemisia aucheri (A. aucheri) was obtained from shoot culture grown on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) medium. Shade-dried aerial parts of in vitro grown A. aucheri (50 g) were extracted with dichloromethane-acetone (90:10). The extract was submitted for isolation to sephadex gel chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, which resulted in identification of one known eudesmanolide named artemin or 2,5-dihydroxy-12, 6-eudesmanolide-4(15)-en for the first time in this plant. In cell cytotoxicity test, artemin showed cytotoxic activity against DU-145,LNCaP prostate cancer, and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 82.2 ± 5.6, 89.1 ± 6.3 and 111.5 ± 6.7 μM , respectively. Artemin was more active against prostate cancer cells with approximately same cytotoxicity against LNCaP androstane dependent cells and DU 145 which is androstane independent.
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Enhanced transient expression of an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody in CHO cells through utilization of miRNA sponge technology p. 335
Morvarid Sadat Pairawan, Azam Bolhassani, Azam Rahimpour
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263626  
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the dominant mammalian host system for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Improving the viable cell density during culture of recombinant CHO cells can greatly affect the production yield. MicroRNAs (miRs) -15a and 16-1 are known as negative regulators of multiple genes involved in cell cycle progression and apoptotic inhibition. miR sponges, which act as decoy targets, are transcripts which contain complementary binding sites to the seed region of related miRs. Stably expressed miR sponges are known as efficient tools for miR loss of function studies. In this study, stable CHO cell pools and clones expressing miRs-15a and 16-1 specific decoy transcript downstream of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene was developed. Analysis of cell growth during 12 days of batch culture indicated improved maximum viable cell density of CHO cells and clones expressing the decoy transcript. In addition, transient expression of a recombinant anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody was significantly improved in a decoy harboring CHO cell clone, representing a 3.37-fold increase in yield after 4 days of culture. Our results indicated that miR sponge technology can be successfully applied for the improvement of cell viability and transient monoclonal antibody expression in CHO host cells.
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The effect of lead, restraint stress or their co-exposure on the movement disorders incidence in male mice p. 343
Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad, Sara Naghibzadeh, Valiollah Hajhashemi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263558  
Lead is known as an environmental contaminant with neurotoxic properties. In addition, people experience different types of chronic stress, especially in developing countries. It has been established that lead or stress causes structural and physiological damages to the neural pathway like dopaminergic connections. Nevertheless, the effect of lead and restraint stress on movement behaviors when are experienced together has not been studied yet. In this study, male albino mice were randomly divided into different groups (n = 6). Lead acetate was daily injected at 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 2, 4, or 6 weeks. Restraint stress (6 h in a day) was applied alone or in combination with lead acetate for 2, 4, or 6 weeks. The catalepsy, akinesia, and the balance of animals were measured by bar test, elevated beam device, and rotarod to evaluate the movement disorders. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a known neurotoxin causes movement disorders, was used as positive control group. The results showed that exposure to the lead or stress or their combination for 6 weeks caused catalepsy, akinesia, and imbalance in the animals, while exposure for 2 or 4 weeks didn’t affect the movement items indices. The combination of lead and stress did not show any significant difference compared to the exposure to each of them individually. From the findings, Lead, stress, and their combination caused movement disorders in a time dependent manner. Short time exposure did not change movement behavior. The co-exposure to the lead and stress did not show additive or synergistic effects.
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Evidence for expression of promoterless GFP cassette: Is GFP an ideal reporter gene in biotechnology science? p. 351
Zahra Mohammadi, Arezou Karamzadeh, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Hossein Khanahmad, Laleh Shariati
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263559  
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has played an important role in biochemistry and cell biology as a reporter gene. It has been used to assess the potency of promoters for recombinant protein production. This investigation reveals evidences suggesting that the gfp GFP gene (EGFP) could be expressed without the promoter. In a study, a pLenti-F/GFP vector was constructed with the purpose to allow GFP expression in transduced cells but not in packaging cells; however, after transfecting the HEK293T cell line, GFP gene was expressed, compared to pLOX/CWgfp-transfected cells showed expression lag, lower levels and reduced percentage of GFP expression in the cells. This unexpected result could be due to auto transduction in packaging cell, possible retrotransposon activity in the cell line, possible contamination of pLenti-F/GFP with the pLOX/CWgfp and possible presence of a promoter within backbone of the vector. All the possibilities were ruled out. To exclude the possibility that a sequence within the region might act as a promoter, the fragment to be transfected was minimized to a region containing “from the start of the GFP gene to 5’LTR R”. The GFP gene was again expressed. Therefore, our findings suggest the EGFP does not need promoter for expression. This should appeal to the researchers designing GFP based assays to evaluate the potency of promoters, since possible aberrant expression may have a potential to influence on the results of a planned experiment.
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Improving the solubility, activity, and stability of reteplase using in silico design of new variants p. 359
Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh, Mohamad Reza Ganjalikhany, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Morteza Pourfarzam, Hamid Mir Mohammad Sadeghi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263560  
Reteplase (recombinant plasminogen activator, r-PA) is a thrombolytic agent recombined from tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which has several prominent features such as strong thrombolytic ability and E. coli expressibility. Despite these outstanding features, it demonstrates reduced fibrin binding affinity, reduced stimulation of protease activity, and lower solubility, hence higher aggregation propensity, compared to t-PA. The present study was devoted to design r-PA variants with comparable structural stability, enhanced biological activity, and high solubility. For this purpose, computational molecular modeling techniques were utilized. The supercharging technique was applied for r-PA to designing new species of the protein. Based on the results from in silico evaluation of selected mutations in comparison to the wild-type r-PA, the designed supercharged mutant (S7 variant) exhibited augmented stability, decreased solvation energy, as well as enhanced binding affinity to fibrin. The data also implied increased plasminogen cleavage activity of the new variant. These findings have implications to therapies which involve removal of intravascular blood clots, including the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.
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Klotho induces insulin resistance possibly through interference with GLUT4 translocation and activation of Akt, GSK3β, and PFKfβ3 in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells p. 369
Mohamad Hasannejad, Seyed Ziaaldin Samsamshariat, Armita Esmaili, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.263627  
Klotho is considered as an anti-aging factor inducing insulin resistance and involved in type 2 diabetes. However, mechanisms by which klotho induces insulin resistance remain to be understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate possible interference points of klotho with insulin signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells by focusing on phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK3β, PFK-fβ3, and GLUT4 translocation. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to the adipocyte-like cells were performed using specific differentiation kit and confirmed by mRNA expression assay of PPARγ using qRT-PCR, and Sudan black staining of lipid droplets. Then cells were co-treated with klotho and insulin. Expression and translocation of GLUT4 mRNA were evaluated using qRT-PCR and Alexa flour 488 conjugated GLUT4 antibody, respectively. P-Akt/Akt, p-GSK3β/GSK3β, and p-PFKfβ3/PFKfβ3 ratios were determined in insulin and klotho/insulin treated cells using western blot. Our result indicated that GLUT4 expression were decreased to 0.72 ± 0.16 fold in insulin treated cells, however it was calculated 1.12 ± 0.25 fold in klotho/insulin treated cells. In addition, klotho prevented GLUT4 membrane translocation by 27.2% in comparison with insulin-treated cells (P < 0.05). Interestingly, in insulin/klotho co-treated cells, phospho-levels of Akt, GSK3β, and PFKfβ3 proteins was decreased to 2.34 ± 0.14, 2.29 ± 0.63, and 1.95 ± 0.37 fold in comparison with the insulin cells, (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our study indicated that klotho induces insulin resistance in adipocytes possibly through prevention of GLUT4 translocation, and interfere with phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, and PFKf3β intracellular signaling mediators by insulin.
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