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   2017| September-October  | Volume 12 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 13, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Isolation of bacteriophages against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
Hasan Ghajavand, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, Asghar Havaei, Hossein Fazeli, Reyhaneh Jafari, Sharareh Moghim
September-October 2017, 12(5):373-380
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213982  PMID:28974975
Increasing multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are often considered as alternative agents for controlling A. baumannii infections. In the present study two lytic phages for MDR A. baumannii were isolated and their efficacy and host ranges were evaluated. The phages were isolated from hospital wastewater. Electron microscopy revealed that IsfAB78 might belong to Myoviridae and IsfAB39 to Podoviridae. Initial characterization of phages showed that they have narrow host range and failed to infect relative and non- relative bacteria. Both phages decreased the A. baumannii turbidity significantly, indicating that these isolated phages may be considered as candidates for phage therapy.
  3,761 322 3
Protective effect of curcumin on lead acetate-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats
Sri Agus Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani Sudjarwo, Koerniasari
September-October 2017, 12(5):381-390
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213983  PMID:28974976
In recent years, the use of the antioxidant in reducing heavy metal toxicities has increased worldwide. Curcumin has been reported to have a strong antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin on lead acetate-induced testicular damage in rats. The sample used 40 male rats divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given daily with corn oil); positive control (rats were given daily with lead acetate 50 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 35 days); and the treatment group (rats were given the curcumin 100 mg, 200 mg, and 400 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 40 days, and on the 5th day, were given lead acetate 50 mg/kg BW one h after the curcumin administration). After 40 days, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testicular tissue, and sperm count, motility and viability in the epididymis were measured in rats. Testis samples were also collected for histopathological studies. Results showed that lead acetate administration significantly decreased the SOD, GPx, and increased MDA levels. Lead acetate also decreased the sperm count, motility, viability, and altered histopathological testis (testicular damage, necrosis of seminiferous tubules and loss of spermatid) compared to the negative control. However, administration of curcumin significantly improved the histopathological in testis, increased the sperm count, motility, viability, and also significantly increased the SOD, GPx, and decreased MDA in testis of lead acetate-treated rats. From the results of this study we concluded that the curcumin could be a potent natural product provide a promising protective effect against lead acetate induced testicular toxicity in rats.
  1,846 291 5
Factors affecting liposomes particle size prepared by ethanol injection method
Sherif Shaker, Ahmed Rifaat Gardouh, Mamdouh Mostafa Ghorab
September-October 2017, 12(5):346-352
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213979  PMID:28974972
Ethanol injection is one of the techniques frequently used to produce liposomes which favors both simplicity and safety. In this process, an ethanolic solution of lipids is rapidly injected into an aqueous medium through a needle, dispersing the phospholipids throughout the medium and promoting the vesicle formation. Being a critical parameter that determines the fate of liposome and its distribution, we studied different factors affecting the particle size of liposomes including different phospholipid (Phosal® 53 MCT) and cholesterol concentrations and the use of different types of non-ionic surfactants at fixed Phosal® 53 MCT concentration of 50 mg per formulation. Both Phosal® 53 MCT and cholesterol concentration had direct effect on liposomes particle size. Non-ionic surfactants produced liposomes of smaller particle size when compared to conventional liposomes formed using Phosal® 53 MCT 300 mg per formulation only, whereas this effect was diminished when higher Phosal® 53 MCT to cholesterol ratios were used that obviously increased liposomes size. Smaller liposomes sizes were obtained upon using non-ionic surfactants of lower hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance (HLB) as both Tween 80 and Cremophor RH 40 produced liposomes of smaller particle size compared to Poloxamer 407. The smallest liposomes particle size was successfully obtained in the formulation comprising 300 mg Phosal® MCT, 150 mg cholesterol and 50 mg Tween 80.
  1,608 340 7
Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seed on glucose and insulin related biomarkers, lipid profile, and hepatic enzymes in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type II diabetic male mice
Akram Ahangarpour, Hamid Heidari, Majid Salehizade Junghani, Reza Absari, Mehdi Khoogar, Ehsan Ghaedi
September-October 2017, 12(5):416-424
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213987  PMID:28974980
Type 2 diabetes often leads to dislipidemia and abnormal activity of hepatic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) seed extrac on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (30-35 g) were randomly separated into seven groups: control, diabetic group, diabetic mice treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, as standard antidiabetic drug) or R. coriaria seed extract in doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control groups received these two doses of extract orally for 28 days. Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Ultimately, body weight of mice, blood levels of glucose, insulin, hepatic enzymes, leptin, and lipid profile were assayed. After induction of type 2 diabetes, level of glucose, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased and level of insulin and high density lipoprotein decreased remarkably. Administration of both doses of extract decreased level of glucose and cholesterol significantly in diabetic mice. LDL level decreased in treated group with dose of 300 mg/kg of the extract. Although usage of the extract improved level of other lipid profiles, insulin and hepatic enzymes, changes weren't significant. This study showed R. coriaria seeds administration has a favorable effect in controlling some blood parameters in type 2 diabetes. Therefore it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.
  1,601 265 5
The protective effect of sodium benzoate on aluminum toxicity in PC12 cell line
Rita Arabsolghar, Jamileh Saberzadeh, Forouzan Khodaei, Rozhin Abbasi Borojeni, Marjan Khorsand, Marzieh Rashedinia
September-October 2017, 12(5):391-400
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213984  PMID:28974977
Sodium benzoate (SB) is one of the food additives and preservatives that prevent the growth of fungi and bacteria. SB has been shown to improve the symptoms of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SB on the cell survival and cellular antioxidant indices after exposure to aluminum maltolate (Almal) in PC12 cell line as a model of neurotoxicity. The cells exposed to different concentrations of SB (0.125 to 3 mg/mL) in the presence of Almal (500 µM) and cell viability, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione content and catalase activity were measured. The results showed that low concentrations of SB caused an increase in the cell survival, but cell viability was reduced in high concentrations. SB could neither prevent the level of ROS production nor change glutathione content. SB (0.5 mg/mL) significantly increased the catalase enzyme activity as compared to the Almal. This study suggested that SB did not completely protect the cell to aluminum- induced free radicals toxicity. Possibly SB improves the symptoms of neurodegenerative disease by other mechanisms.
  1,419 170 3
Facile one-pot four-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2-pyridone derivatives: Novel urease inhibitor scaffold
Arash Modarres Hakimi, Negar Lashgari, Shabnam Mahernia, Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani, Massoud Amanlou
September-October 2017, 12(5):353-363
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213980  PMID:28974973
In the current study, a series of 3,4-dihydro-2-pyridone derivatives were synthesized in a one-pot four- component reaction of Meldrum's acid, benzaldehyde derivatives, methyl acetoacetate, and ammonium acetate. SiO2-Pr-SO3H was used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of the target compounds under solvent-free conditions. The most probable mechanism for this reaction has been discussed. The advantages of this methodology are high product yields, being environmentally benign, short reaction times, and easy handling. Eight 2-pyridinone derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against Jack bean urease. Molecular docking study of the synthesized compounds was also evaluated. All compounds showed good activities against urease and among them, 4-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4- dihydropyridone (5a) showed the most potent activity (IC50 = 29.12 µM), more potent than hydroxyurea as the reference drug (IC50 = 100.0 µM). Also, the results from docking studies were in good agreement with those obtained with in vitro assay. According to the docking studies methionine (Met) 637 and nitro phenyl ring cause n-π interaction between lone pair of sulfur atom and π aromatic ring. Moreover, hydrophobic interactions existed between compound 5a and alanine (ALA) 636, ALA 440, and isoleucine 411. The results indicated that the inhibitory activities increased with the increase of electron withdrawing ability of the groups despite a less important role of lipophilicity in increasing the inhibitory activity.
  1,287 161 3
Docking study, synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of some novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives
Rezvan Rezaee Nasab, Farshid Hassanzadeh, Ghadam Ali Khodarahmi, Mahboubeh Rostami, Mahmoud Mirzaei, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Mansourian
September-October 2017, 12(5):425-433
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213988  PMID:28974981
A series of novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized from benzoic acid through ring closure, chlorination or nucleophilic substitution. The structures of compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. All synthesized derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aurous, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocitogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella entritidis) bacteria and also for antifungal activities against Candida albicans using the conventional micro dilution method. Most of the compounds have shown good antibacterial activities, especially compound 4c having highest activities against E. coli at 32 μg/mL concentration while the tested compounds did not exhibited remarkable antifungal activities. The potential DNA gyrase inhibitory activity of these compounds was investigated in silico using molecular docking simulation method. All compounds showed good results especially compound 4c which showed the lowest ΔGbind results (-8.16 Kcal/mol).
  1,248 173 -
Improvement of citral antimicrobial activity by incorporation into nanostructured lipid carriers: A potential application in food stuffs as a natural preservative
Manijeh Mokarizadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Saeed Ghanbarzadeh, Ainaz Alizadeh, Hamed Hamishehkar
September-October 2017, 12(5):409-415
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213986  PMID:28974979
At the present time, utilization of essential oils in food preservation to prevent bacterial and fungal growth and improve shelf life and safety of the food products has notably gained increased interest. The aim of the present study was to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of citral as a natural preservative using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Formulations of NLCs were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy methods. Possible citral-carrier interaction and citral encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%) were assessed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques, respectively. Antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of citral-loaded NLCs were evaluated and compared with the conventional citral emulsion against various gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus), gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and fungi (Candida albicans). Citral-loaded NLCs were spherically shaped nanosized (74.8 nm) particles with narrow size distribution, high EE% (99.84%), and appropriate physical stability during 90 days of storage period. FTIR spectra indicated the interaction between citral and formulation ingredients, which justified the obtained high EE% value. The MIC and MBC values of citral-loaded NLCs were lower than those of citral emulsion for all microorganisms. NLCs formulation showed remarkable capability of encapsulating essential oil and increasing antimicrobial properties to offer effective preservation in food industry.
  1,235 164 3
Can allopurinol improve retinopathy in diabetic rats? Oxidative stress or uric acid; which one is the culprit?
Mohsen Goharinia, Athar Zareei, Mansour Rahimi, Hossein Mirkhani
September-October 2017, 12(5):401-408
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213985  PMID:28974978
Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, reduces both plasma uric acid and oxidative stress and shows useful effects on some complications of diabetes. However, it is not defined which of the above mentioned properties are involved. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no study has been done on the effects of allopurinol on diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, the effect of allopurinol on experimental diabetic retinopathy and its possible mechanism has been investigated. Thirty two rats were divided into four groups of eight rats each; (1) normal, (2) diabetic control, (3) diabetic + allopurinol (50 mg/kg.day), (4) diabetic + benzbromarone (10 mg/kg.day). Drugs were administered daily and orally from the day after diabetes induction for eight weeks. Thereafter retinal function and structure were evaluated by electroretinography and microscopic studies. Uric acid and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured biochemically. Diabetes significantly increased plasma uric acid and oxidative stress markers and reduced body weight and amplitude of electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave and oscillatory potentials. Treatment of diabetic rats with allopurinol caused a significant increase in the amplitude of ERG b-wave (87%) and decrease in blood sugar (20%), uric acid (49%), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (56%), but had no effect on the number of retinal ganglionic cells and oscillatory potentials. Benzbromarone showed no significant effects on the considered parameters except the reduction of uric acid. Allopurinol improved the b-wave amplitude of diabetic rats. It seems that this beneficial effect is due to the reduction of oxidative stress rather than its effect on plasma uric acid.
  1,161 124 1
Effects of salbutamol on the inflammatory parameters and angiogenesis in the rat air pouch model of inflammation
Tahereh Eteraf-Oskouei, Arezu Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Milad Maghsudi, Moslem Najafi
September-October 2017, 12(5):364-372
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.213981  PMID:28974974
In the present study, effects of salbutamol on the inflammatory parameters, angiogenesis, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were investigated in an air pouch model of inflammation. Inflammation was induced by intrapouch administration of 1% solution of sterile carrageenan in male Wistar rats. Salbutamol (125, 250 and 500 µg/rat) and salbutamol (500 µg/rat) plus propranolol (100 μg/rat) were injected intrapouch. After 6 and 72 h, fluid inside the pouches was collected to measure volume of exudates, leukocytes number and IL-1β levels. To determine angiogenesis, the granulation tissues were dissected out and weighed 3 days after carrageenan injection, then hemoglobin concentration was assessed using a hemoglobin assay kit. In addition, amount of VEGF in the exudates was measured 72 h after induction of inflammation. Leukocyte accumulation and the volume of exudates were significantly inhibited by salbutamol administration. In addition, salbutamol decreased the production of VEGF and IL-1β. Moreover, all used doses of salbutamol significantly inhibited angiogenesis. Interestingly, effects of salbutamol on the attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters was similar to diclofenac sodium. Co-administration of propranolol with salbutamol clearly reversed anti-inflammatory effects of salbutamol. Salbutamol can decrease acute and chronic inflammation by β2-adrenergic receptors activation. The observed IL-1β and VEGF inhibitory properties of salbutamol may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effect of the agent.
  955 87 1