Figure 3: Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of testis tissue in the sham and experimental rats. (A) Nearly normal spermatogenesis is seen in the sham group. (B) Spermatogenesis is disturbed in trauma group and some degrees of germ cell detachment and sloughing (star), and vacuolization (arrow) is seen. Karyolitic cells are seen between Sertoli cells, next to the tunica albuginea (arrow head). (C) Melatonin could repair these changes to some extent. (D) Melatonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles also improved the spermatogenesis. (H & E. ×400). Scale bar = 100 μm.