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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 288-303

Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as novel drug delivery systems: applications, advantages and disadvantages

1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, I.R. Iran
2 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, I.R. Iran

Date of Web Publication2-Jul-2018

Correspondence Address:
Soliman Mohammadi-Samani
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz
I.R. Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1735-5362.235156

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During the recent years, more attentions have been focused on lipid base drug delivery system to overcome some limitations of conventional formulations. Among these delivery systems solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are promising delivery systems due to the ease of manufacturing processes, scale up capability, biocompatibility, and also biodegradability of formulation constituents and many other advantages which could be related to specific route of administration or nature of the materials are to be loaded to these delivery systems. The aim of this article is to review the advantages and limitations of these delivery systems based on the route of administration and to emphasis the effectiveness of such formulations.

Keywords: Drug delivery systems; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs); Routes of administration; Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs)

How to cite this article:
Ghasemiyeh P, Mohammadi-Samani S. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as novel drug delivery systems: applications, advantages and disadvantages. Res Pharma Sci 2018;13:288-303

How to cite this URL:
Ghasemiyeh P, Mohammadi-Samani S. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as novel drug delivery systems: applications, advantages and disadvantages. Res Pharma Sci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2023 Jan 28];13:288-303. Available from: https://www.rpsjournal.net/text.asp?2018/13/4/288/235156

  1. Introduction Top

Lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems were considered from the beginning of the 19th century by professor R. H. Müller from Germany and Professor M. Gascon from Italy [1],[2]. These nanoparticles are manufactured from solid or mixture of solid and liquid lipids and stabilized by emulsifiers.

Lipids used in these nanoparticles are biocompatible and completely tolerated by the body like triglycerides, fatty acids, steroids, and waxes. In addition, using combination of emulsifiers could stabilize the formulations more efficiently. Lipid nanoparticles have many advantages in comparison to other particulate systems such as the ease of large-scale production [3], biocompatible and biodegradable nature of the materials [4], low toxicity potential [5], possibility of controlled and modified drug release [6], drug solubility enhancement and the possibility of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drug incorporation. Lipid nanoparticles are different from micro-emulsions, which are clear thermodynamically stable dispersion of oil and water that are stabilized by surfactants and cosurfactants [7],[8]. The most important parameters in lipid nanoparticles characterization are particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, polymorphism, degree of crystallinity, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. There are three different types of lipid nanoparticles: homogenous drug-lipid matrix, drug enriched core and drug enriched shell. Drug release from lipid nanoparticles is mostly dependent on the matrix type and location of drug in matrix formulation; for example in the third type, drug release from the nanocarriers shows more sustained release profile. The composition of lipid matrix, surfactant concentration and manufacturing parameters, such as temperature and stirring rate, can also affect drug release profiles. Probably the most important reasons of using lipid nanoparticles, as a suitable alternative of previous polymeric nanoparticles, are the ease of large-scale production and their low toxicity potential [1].

  2. Types of Lipid Nanoparticles Top

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are the first generation of lipid-based nanocarriers that are formulated from lipids, which are solid in the body temperature and stabilized by emulsifiers [1]. SLNs have submicron (less than 1000 nm) sizes [9]. They have numerous advantages such as drug protection against harsh environmental situations, ease of large scale production using high pressure homogenization technique, biocompatibility, and biodegradability [10]. SLNs have also some disadvantages; because of their perfect crystalline structure, they have low drug loading efficiency [10] and the possibility of drug expulsion due to the crystallization process during the storage conditions. Another drawback is initial burst release [11] which usually occurs with these formulations. In SLNs drug molecules orients between the fatty acid chains or glycerides and during the storage periods and polymorphic changes in solid lipid structures there is a tendency to expulsion of previously dissolved drug in SLNs. [Figure 1] illustrates the actual place of drug orientation in SLNs and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) schematically.
Figure 1: Schematic view of the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) showing the drug location within the lipid matrix.

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NLCs are second generation of lipid-based nanocarriers formed from mixture of solid and liquid lipids and have unstructured-matrix due to the different moieties of the constituents of NLCs [2]. NLCs were designed in order to overcome the SLNs limitations. NLCs have higher drug loading capacity because of imperfect crystal structure and could avoid drug expulsion by avoiding lipid crystallization during the manufacturing and storage periods. Due to the presence of liquid lipids in NLCs formulation expulsion of loaded drug after formulation and during the storage period is minimized. NLCs also can increase drug solubility in lipid matrix and they can show more controllable release profiles in comparison to SLNs [12]. Although NLCs are solid in nature even in body temperature but they have low melting point than SLNs and due to their unstructured nature and imperfection in their crystalline behaviors provide more space for drug dissolution and payload in liquid part of the NLCs. In this regard, loading capacity in NLCs are more than SLNs. Previous researches also confirm on less susceptibility of NLCs than SLNs to gelation during the preparation and storage period, which is another advantage of NLCs, NLCs can facilitate separation of nanoparticle from the rest of the medium and dosage form preparation for parenteral administration [2],[12].

  3. Methods of Lipid Nano-Particles Preparation Top

Lipid nanoparticles could be prepared by different methods such as hot and cold high pressure homogenization [13],[14], solvent emulsification/evaporation [15], microemulsion formation technique [16], and ultrasonic solvent emulsification [3]. Large-scale productions of lipid nanoparticles are mainly obtained by high pressure homogenization technique.

3.1. High pressure homogenization technique

3.1.1. Hot high pressure homogenization

In this method, lipid phase is heated up to 90 °C, then the hot lipid phase is dispersed in aqueous phase containing surfactants with same temperature. The pre-emulsion is homogenized at 90 °C under 3 cycles of high pressure homogenizer at 5 × 107 Pa. Finally, the obtained oil in water emulsion is cooled down to room temperature to solidify SLNs or NLCs [17].

3.1.2. Cold high pressure homogenization

In this method, the melted lipid phase is cooled to solidify and then ground to form lipid microparticles. Obtained lipid microparticles are dispersed in cool aqueous phase containing surfactants to form pre-suspension. Then the pre-suspension is homogenized under 5 cycles of high pressure homogenizer at room temperature and pressure of 1.5 × 108 Pa [18].

3.2. Solvent emulsification/evaporation technique

In this method, lipid phase is dissolved in an organic solvent such as acetone (organic phase). Then the organic phase is added to the aqueous phase (surfactant solution in water) under continuous stirring at 70-80 °C. The stirring will be continued until the organic phase is completely evaporated. Then obtained nanoemulsion is cooled (below 5 °C) to solidify lipid nanoparticles [15].

3.3. Microemulsion formation technique

In this method, lipids are melted at appropriate temperature and aqueous phase containing surfactants are heated up to same temperature. Then the hot aqueous phase will be added to the melted lipids under stirring at the same temperature. The hot oil in water microemulsion is dispersed in cold water at 1:50 ratio to solidify lipid nanoparticles [19].

3.4. Ultrasonic solvent emulsification technique

In this method, lipid phase is dissolved in an organic solvent such as dichloromethane and heated up to 50 °C. Then, aqueous phase containing surfactants and emulsifiers is heated up to the same temperature. After partial evaporation of dichloromethane, the aqueous phase is added to the organic phase under stirring at 50 °C. Obtained emulsion is sonicated for appropriate time and finally cooled in an ice bath to solidify lipid nanoparticles [3].

  4. Lipid Nanoparticles Applications and Different Routes of Administration Top

Numerous articles are reviewed and the results are categorized according to the routes of drug administration to six topics of topical, oral, parenteral, ocular, lung and brain delivery as shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Different loaded active compound and routes of administration of lipid nanoparticles.

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4.1. Topical route of administration

Skin related diseases are very common around the world. The major limitations for treatment of these diseases are low drug efficacy because of poor skin penetration or skin permeation of drugs from the most conventional formulations. Stratum corneum of epidermis is the major skin barrier and it should be bypassed through changing the penetration pathway from transcellular to paracellular or follicles. Lipid nanoparticles such as SLNs and NLCs have been developed to increase skin penetration or permeation. These particulate formulations are manufactured by mixing SLNs or NLCs with conventional formulations. They could be directly prepared in a one-step process which produce drug-loaded SLNs or NLCs. Lipid nanoparticles have so many advantages for topical drug delivery such as biocompatibility and biodegradability, controlled and extended drug release profile, close contact and strong skin adhesion, skin hydration and film formation in order to increase skin and dermal penetration [Table 2] [27],[29],[35],[36],[40].
Table 2: Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as topical drug delivery systems.

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4.2. Oral route

Oral drug administration is the most common route of drug delivery system because of the highest patient compliance. Low oral bioavailability due to limited drug solubility and/or high hepatic first pass effect are the most important limitations in oral drug delivery that should be overcome. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems were considered as suitable delivery system to increase oral bioavailability. Lipid nanoparticles such as SLNs and NLCs have the advantage of sustained drug release capability to maintain a constant plasma levels. In addition, nanoparticles with higher specific surface area and higher saturation solubility have more rapid dissolution rate that can accelerate the onset of drugs action. Other major barriers in oral drug delivery are p-glycoprotein efflux pumps and chemical or enzymatic degradation. Recent researches have shown that some specific lipids or surfactants, which are used in lipid nanoparticles, are capable of inhibiting p-glycoprotein efflux pumps. Drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles could reduce chemical or enzymatic degradation of the drugs which are embedded in a lipid matrix. Lipid nanoparticles could promote lymphatic transport and can bypass the liver and avoid hepatic first pass effect [50],[51],[52],[130],[131]. Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages for oral route are listed in [Table 3].
Table 3: Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as oral drug delivery systems.

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4.3. Ocular administration

Ocular drug delivery has many limitations and remains challenging because of specific physiological and anatomical features of the eyes. Eyes are a very complex and sophisticated organ and have several barriers that should be overcome in order to reach specific ocular tissue. Novel drug delivery systems such as lipid nanoparticles were considered to overcome these barriers and improve ocular tissue bioavailability. Topical application is the most common route of drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eyes. This route of administration has many advantages and is the choice for superficial ocular diseases. Major barriers in this pathway are corneal epithelium, blood ocular barrier, conjunctival blood flow, and tear drainage. Lipid nanoparticles which are used as ocular drug delivery systems are capable of passing blood ocular barrier, obtain sustained and controlled drug release, protect drugs from lacrimal enzymes and prolong drug deposition and residence time in eyes. Treatment of ocular diseases, which involve posterior segment of the eyes, is very difficult. There are different ways to target posterior segment of the eyes.

Topical route is not a suitable way to target intraocular tissues; other routes that are used for this purpose are transscleral delivery (subconjunctival and retrobulbar injection), intravitreal route, subretinal injection, etc. Most of these ways are invasive, so novel drug delivery systems such as lipid nanoparticles could be an appropriate alternative. Gene therapy for the purpose of retinal targeting in retinal diseases was also considered using non-viral vectors gene delivery including SLNs and NLCs [73],[74],[75],[76],[81]. A brief list of advantages and disadvantages of this route of administration are listed in [Table 4].
Table 4: Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as ocular drug delivery systems.

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4.4. Parenteral administration

Nanomedicine and nanotechnology play an important role in improving the parenteral drug delivery. Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as parenteral drug delivery systems are listed in [Table 5]. The most important advantages of lipid nanoparticles for this purpose are ease of scale up production, biocompatible and biodegradable nature of the formulation constituents, controlled and modified drug release pattern, preventing drug degradation and maintaining more constant serum levels of drugs. Drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles may be injected intravenously, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, and directlyto target organs. Drug release from lipid nanoparticles may occur via erosion (such as enzymatic degradation) or via diffusion which could support a sustained drug release. Recent researches have confirmed the capability of lipid nanoparticles in peptide and protein incorporation. In this context, SLNs are not suitable carrier due to limited drug loading capacity but NLCs are appropriate alternative. In this method peptides and proteins can be protected from harsh environmental conditions [92],[93],[97],[100] .
Table 5: Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as parenteral drug delivery systems.

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4.5. Pulmonary delivery

Pulmonary drug delivery is a relatively new approach, which has many advantages. It is a non-invasive route of drug delivery for both local and systemic administration. By this direct delivery system, drug dosage may be decreased and consequently drug adverse effects would be reduced. Direct drug inhalation can also accelerate onset of action. High drug accumulation in target site is another advantage of such administration route. Large surface area of pulmonary system and thin alveolar epithelium could guarantee high drug permeability. Lipid microparticles were used as delivery systems for lung targeting. These particulate systems showed good results such as drug bioavailability enhancement in comparison with conventional formulations. Lipid nanoparticles including SLNs and NLCs have been considered for pulmonary delivery. They have the advantage of sustaining drug release, biocompatibility and biodegradablity, lower toxicity and better stability in comparison with previously designed particulate systems. Pulmonary delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles would result in high local concentration and can reduce systemic adverse effects. Also nanoparticles can achieve higher bioavailability for systemic delivery purposes. Lipid nanoparticles used in lung drug delivery, like other routes of administration, have the advantage of sustained drug delivery [103],[114],[117],[118]. Some of the most important advantages and limitations of this route of administration are listed in [Table 6]a.
Table 6: Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as pulmonary drug delivery systems.

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4.6. Brain delivery

Drug delivery to the brain is one of the most important challenges in pharmaceutical sciences because of the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles with the advantage of small particle size and high drug encapsulation efficiency have been considered for specific targeting of brain tissues. Since nanoparticles can bypass reticuloendothelial system (RES), they are suitable as brain drug delivery systems. Two major obstacles in brain drug delivery are limited penetration of drugs across BBB and efflux of transported drugs from brain to blood circulation. Lipid nanoparticles such as SLNs and NLCs are one of the colloidal drug delivery systems that have been utilized to overcome these barriers. Lipid nanoparticles advantages and limitations as brain drug delivery systems are listed in [Table 7]. Lipid nanoparticles have the advantage of increasing drug retention time in blood of brain capillaries and inducing a drug gradient from blood to brain tissues, opening tight junctions to facilitate passage from BBB and transcytosis of drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles through the endothelium layer. Lipid nanoparticles are suitable for incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs which could be administered via different routes [120],[121],[122],[123],[124],[125],[126],[127],[128],[129]. Previous researches emphasized on significant effect of surfactant suitability for brain drug delivery. Appropriate surfactants could be chosen according to their HLB and packing parameter. For site-specific brain drug delivery, polysorbates especially polysorbate 80, has shown best results. In addition, results showed that positively charged lipid nanoparticles induce better drug accumulation in the brain [123].
Table 7: Lipid nanoparticles advantages and disadvantages as brain drug delivery systems.

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  5. Commercially Available Products from Lipid Nano-Particles in Market Top

Today, most of the commercially available products from lipid nanoparticles are cosmetic products such as Cutanova Cream Nano Repair Q10, Intensive Serum Nano Repair Q10, Cutanova Cream Nano Vital Q10, SURMER Crème Legère Nano-Protection, SURMER Crème Riche Nano-Restructurante, SURMER Elixir du Beauté Nano-Vitalisant, SURMER Masque Crème Nano-Hydratant, NanoLipid Restore CLR, NanoLipid Q10 CLR, NanoLipid Basic CLR, NanoLipid Repair CLR, IOPE SuperVital cream, serum, eye cream, extra moist softener and extra moist emulsion, NLC Deep Effect Eye Serum, NLC Deep Effect Repair Cream, NLC Deep Effect Reconstruction Cream, NLC Deep Effect Reconstruction Serum, Regenerations Creme Intensiv Scholl, Swiss Cellular White Illuminating Eye Essence, Swiss Cellular White Intensive Ampoules, SURMER Creme Contour Des Yeux Nano-Remodelante, Olivenöl Anti Falten Pflegekonzentrat, Olivenöl Augenpflegebalsam [18].

  6. Conclusion Top

lipid nanoparticles are novel drug deivery systems which have many advantages over other colloidal and polymeric nanocarriers. The most important advantages of lipid carriers are their biocompatibility, biodegradability, ease of scalability, and controlled and modified release patterns. Among these two types of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC), NLCs as a second generation of lipid nanoparticles, has shown better results for the purpose of targeted drug delivery and nowadays are more considered for different routes of administration. Lipid nanoparticles are suitable carriers for both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. They can be administered by different routes such as topical, oral, parenteral, ocular, pulmonary, brain drug delivery. These nanoparticles for each routes of administration have its own advantages and also limitations that should be considered. Lipid nanoaprticles are promising drug delivery systems for delivery of various pharmaceutically important active ingredients from small molecule to protein and gene in early future.

  Acknowledgement Top

The content of this paper is taken from the Pharm.D thesis (Grant No. 95010511769) submitted by Parisa Ghasemiyeh and was financially supported by the vice chancellery research of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, I.R. Iran.

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]

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25 Nanomedicine of Plant Origin for the Treatment of Metabolic Disorders
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26 Nanoparticles targeting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: Multimodal carriers for the treatment of hematological diseases
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27 Oxybutynin-Nanoemulgel Formulation as a Successful Skin Permeation Strategy: In-vitro and ex-vivo Evaluation
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28 Advances in lipid-based nanocarriers for breast cancer metastasis treatment
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29 A spotlight on alkaloid nanoformulations for the treatment of lung cancer
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30 Ultrasound Guided Intra-Articular Injection of Triptolide-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle for Treatment of Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Rabbits
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31 Antioxidants and Bioactive Compounds in Food: Critical Review of Issues and Prospects
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32 Plant Exosomal Vesicles: Perspective Information Nanocarriers in Biomedicine
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33 Lipid-Based Nanocarriers in Renal RNA Therapy
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34 Nanomedicine-Based Delivery Strategies for Breast Cancer Treatment and Management
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35 Novel Strategies against Cancer: Dexibuprofen-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers
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36 Lipid-Based Nanoparticulate Systems for the Ocular Delivery of Bioactives with Anti-Inflammatory Properties
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37 Nanoscale Topical Pharmacotherapy in Management of Psoriasis: Contemporary Research and Scope
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38 Synthesis and Potential Applications of Lipid Nanoparticles in Medicine
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39 Advanced Drug Delivery Micro- and Nanosystems for Cardiovascular Diseases
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40 Local Delivery of Azithromycin Nanoformulation Attenuated Acute Lung Injury in Mice
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41 Docetaxel Loaded in Copaiba Oil-Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Promising DDS for Breast Cancer Treatment
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42 Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC)-Based Gel Formulations as Etodolac Delivery: From Gel Preparation to Permeation Study
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43 Anti-COVID-19 Nanomaterials: Directions to Improve Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
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44 Development of New Natural Lipid-Based Nanoparticles Loaded with Aluminum-Phthalocyanine for Photodynamic Therapy against Melanoma
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48 Development of Dapagliflozin Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Novel Carrier for Oral Delivery: Statistical Design, Optimization, In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization, and Evaluation
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50 Facile Solvent-Free Preparation of Antioxidant Idebenone-Loaded Nanoparticles for Efficient Wound Healing
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51 Nano-Based Drug Delivery Systems of Potent MmpL3 Inhibitors for Tuberculosis Treatment
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56 Quality by design based development of nanostructured lipid carrier: a risk based approach
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58 Recent approaches to mRNA vaccine delivery by lipid-based vectors prepared by continuous-flow microfluidic devices
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63 Novel insights on extraction and encapsulation techniques of elderberry bioactive compounds
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72 Formulation, design and strategies for efficient nanotechnology-based nasal delivery systems
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74 Thermogelling Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Nanoemulsions as Templates to Formulate Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs into Oral Thin Films Containing Drug Nanoparticles
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76 Novel nanotechnological approaches for treatment of skin-aging
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77 In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of sustained-release buprenorphine using in-situ forming lipid-liquid crystal gels
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78 Research Progress of Natural Product-based Nanomaterials for the Treatment of Inflammation-Related Diseases
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80 Bimatoprost: Promising novel drug delivery systems in treatment of glaucoma
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81 Novel metal organic frameworks improves solubility and oral absorption of mebendazole: Physicochemical characterization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation
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82 Advanced particulate carrier-mediated technologies for nasal drug delivery
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83 Novel topical drug delivery systems in acne management: Molecular mechanisms and role of targeted delivery systems for better therapeutic outcomes
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84 A recent update on therapeutic potential of vesicular system against fungal keratitis
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85 In vitro release behavior of SLN, NLC, and NE: An explanation based on the particle structure and carried molecule location
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86 Sustained and targeted delivery of hydrophilic drug compounds: A review of existing and novel technologies from bench to bedside
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87 Changing Fate: Reprogramming Cells via Engineered Nanoscale Delivery Materials
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89 Susceptibility of Lung Carcinoma Cells to Nanostructured Lipid Carrier of ARV-825, a BRD4 Degrading Proteolysis Targeting Chimera
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90 Advances in nanotechnology versus stem cell therapy for the theranostics of multiple sclerosis disease
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92 Current status of silica-based nanoparticles as therapeutics and its potential as therapies against viruses
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93 The HbA1c and blood glucose response to selenium-rich polysaccharide from Fomes fomentarius loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a potential antidiabetic agent in rats
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94 Verapamil hydrochloride loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Preparation, optimization, characterisation, and assessment of cardioprotective effect in experimental model of myocardial infarcted rats
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95 Nose-to-brain lipid nanocarriers: An active transportation across BBB in migraine management
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96 Cyclodextrins as an encapsulation molecular strategy for volatile organic compounds – pharmaceutical applications
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97 Nanomedicine in leishmaniasis: A promising tool for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease - An update overview
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98 Nanostructured lipid carrier-embedded polyacrylic acid transdermal patches for improved transdermal delivery of capsaicin
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99 Chitosan oligosaccharide/alginate nanoparticles as an effective carrier for astaxanthin with improving stability, in vitro oral bioaccessibility, and bioavailability
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100 Potential enhancement of metformin hydrochloride in solidified reverse micellar solution-based PEGylated lipid nanoparticles targeting therapeutic efficacy in diabetes treatment
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101 Levofloxacin in nanostructured lipid carriers: preformulation and critical process parameters for a highly incorporated formulation
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102 Recent advancements in nanoparticle-mediated approaches for restoration of multiple sclerosis
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103 Multifunctional stimuli-responsive hybrid nanogels for cancer therapy: Current status and challenges
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107 Nanotechnology against COVID-19: Immunization, diagnostic and therapeutic studies
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114 Recent update of toxicity aspects of nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery
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115 Osteosarcoma from the unknown to the use of exosomes as a versatile and dynamic therapeutic approach
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116 Biomaterials for Orthopaedic Diagnostics and Theranostics
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117 Prospects and challenges of anticancer agentsæ delivery via chitosan-based drug carriers to combat breast cancer: A review
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118 Structured edible lipid-based particle systems for oral drug-delivery
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119 Nanomedicines: Redefining traditional medicine
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120 Auraptene nanoparticles ameliorate testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats: Emphasis on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic and PPARs activation effects
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122 Nanotechnology-based Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 for Cancer Treatment
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123 CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein-Mediated Genome and Epigenome Editing in Mammalian Cells
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124 Novel strategies to oral delivery of insulin: Current progress of nanocarriers for diabetes management
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125 Lipid nanoparticles for the transport of drugs like dopamine through the blood-brain barrier
Elena Ortega,Santos Blanco,Adolfina Ruiz,María Ángeles Peinado,Sebastián Peralta,María Encarnación Morales
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126 Nano-fats for bugs: the benefits of lipid nanoparticles for antimicrobial therapy
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127 The combination of nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inspires the modernization of TCM: review on nanotechnology in TCM-based drug delivery systems
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128 Nanomedicine-based antimicrobial peptide delivery for bacterial infections: recent advances and future prospects
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129 Multifunctional lipidic nanocarriers for effective therapy of glioblastoma: recent advances in stimuli-responsive, receptor and subcellular targeted approaches
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130 A Film-Forming System Hybridized with a Nanostructured Chloroacetamide Derivative for Dermatophytosis Treatment
Gabriella R. M. Machado,Luiz A. M. Inácio,Simone J. Berlitz,Bruna Pippi,Irene C. Kulkamp-Guerreiro,Stefânia N. Lavorato,Ricardo J. Alves,Saulo F. Andrade,Alexandre M. Fuentefria
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131 Preparation a core-shell lipid/polymer nanoparticle containing Isotretinoin drug with pH sensitive property: A response surface methodology study
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132 Polymeric nanoencapsulation of zaleplon into PLGA nanoparticles for enhanced pharmacokinetics and pharmacological activity
Yusuf A. Haggag,Ahmed Kh. Abosalha,Murtaza M. Tambuwala,Enass Y. Osman,Sanaa A. El-Gizawy,Ebtessam A. Essa,Ahmed A. Donia
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133 Nose to brain delivery of Rotigotine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Quality by Design based optimization and characterization
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134 Understanding the implications of co-delivering therapeutic agents in a nanocarrier to combat multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer
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135 Recent updates in COVID-19 with emphasis on inhalation therapeutics: nanostructured and targeting systems
Ahmed A.H. Abdellatif,Hesham M. Tawfeek,Ahmed Abdelfattah,Gaber El-Saber Batiha,Helal F. Hetta
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136 Ceftriaxone sodium loaded onto polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles enhances antibacterial effect on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria: Effects of lipid - polymer ratio on particles size, characteristics, in vitro drug release and antibacterial drug efficacy
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137 Lymphatic transport system to circumvent hepatic metabolism for oral delivery of lipid-based nanocarriers
Amarjitsing Rajput, Prashant Pingale, Darshan Telange, Shailesh Chalikwar, Vivek Borse
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138 Herbal medicine for ocular diseases: An age old therapy and its future perspective
Archana S. Pokkalath, Apurva Sawant, Sujata P. Sawarkar
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139 Combination antipsychotics therapy for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders interventions: Emergence to nanotechnology and herbal drugs
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140 Lipid nanoparticles with improved biopharmaceutical attributes for tuberculosis treatment
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141 Features, Applications, and Sustainability of Lipid Nanoparticles in Cosmeceuticals
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142 Nano-based drug delivery systems used as vehicles to enhance polyphenols therapeutic effect for diabetes mellitus treatment
Sónia Rocha,Mariana Lucas,Daniela Ribeiro,M. Luísa Corvo,Eduarda Fernandes,Marisa Freitas
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143 Investigating natural antibiofilm components: a new therapeutic perspective against candidal vulvovaginitis
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144 Breaking the barriers for the delivery of amikacin: Challenges, strategies, and opportunities
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145 Coalition of Biological Agent (Melatonin) With Chemotherapeutic Agent (Amphotericin B) for Combating Visceral Leishmaniasis via Oral Administration of Modified Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
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146 Design of Hepatic Targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Natural Products: Insights into Nomenclature Revision of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
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147 Nanotherapeutics approaches for targeting alpha synuclien protein in the management of Parkinson disease
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148 Encapsulation of probiotics and nutraceuticals: Applications in functional food industry
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149 Lipid larceny: channelizing host lipids for establishing successful pathogenesis by bacteria
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150 Preparation and evaluation of adapalene nanostructured lipid carriers for targeted drug delivery in acne
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151 Lipid-based nano-formulation platform for eplerenone oral delivery as a potential treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: in-vitro optimization and ex-vivo assessment
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152 A Recent Update on Drug Delivery Systems for Pain Management
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153 Biosynthesis and characterisation of solid lipid nanoparticles and investigation of toxicity against breast cancer cell line
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154 Bortezomib-loaded lipidic-nano drug delivery systems; formulation, therapeutic efficacy, and pharmacokinetics
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Journal of Microencapsulation. 2021; : 1
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155 Nano-Lipidic Formulation and Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s disease via Intranasal Route
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Journal of Microencapsulation. 2021; : 1
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156 Lipid-based nanoparticles for psoriasis treatment: a review on conventional treatments, recent works, and future prospects
Ummu Umaimah Mohd Nordin,Noraini Ahmad,Norazlinaliza Salim,Nor Saadah Mohd Yusof
RSC Advances. 2021; 11(46): 29080
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157 Efficacy of Alendronate Functionalized Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Osteoporosis Treatment- Development and Release Kinetics Study
Sandhya Pathak, Satyendra Kumar Tripathi, Archna Pandey
International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Communication and Technology. 2021; : 229
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158 Use of nanosystems to improve the anticancer effects of curcumin
Andrea M Araya-Sibaja,Norma J Salazar-López,Krissia Wilhelm Romero,José R Vega-Baudrit,J Abraham Domínguez-Avila,Carlos A Velázquez Contreras,Ramón E Robles-Zepeda,Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos,Gustavo A González-Aguilar
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology. 2021; 12: 1047
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159 Inorganic and Polymeric Nanoparticles for Human Viral and Bacterial Infections Prevention and Treatment
John Jairo Aguilera-Correa,Jaime Esteban,María Vallet-Regí
Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(1): 137
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160 Recent Advances in Lipid-Based Nanosystems for Gemcitabine and Gemcitabine–Combination Therapy
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161 A Multifunctional Polymeric Micelle for Targeted Delivery of Paclitaxel by the Inhibition of the P-Glycoprotein Transporters
Sobia Razzaq, Aisha Rauf, Abida Raza, Sohail Akhtar, Tanveer A. Tabish, Mansur Abdullah Sandhu, Muhammad Zaman, Ibrahim M. Ibrahim, Gul Shahnaz, Abbas Rahdar, Ana M. Díez-Pascual
Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(11): 2858
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162 Naringenin Nano-Delivery Systems and Their Therapeutic Applications
Mohammed Bhia,Mahzad Motallebi,Banafshe Abadi,Atefeh Zarepour,Miguel Pereira-Silva,Farinaz Saremnejad,Ana Cláudia Santos,Ali Zarrabi,Ana Melero,Seid Mahdi Jafari,Mehdi Shakibaei
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163 Developing Actively Targeted Nanoparticles to Fight Cancer: Focus on Italian Research
Monica Argenziano,Silvia Arpicco,Paola Brusa,Roberta Cavalli,Daniela Chirio,Franco Dosio,Marina Gallarate,Elena Peira,Barbara Stella,Elena Ugazio
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164 Nose to Brain Delivery of Phenytoin Sodium Loaded Nano Lipid Carriers: Formulation, Drug Release, Permeation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Studies
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Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(10): 1640
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165 Nanotherapeutics for Nose-to-Brain Drug Delivery: An Approach to Bypass the Blood Brain Barrier
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Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(12): 2049
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166 Cyclodextrin-Modified Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery: Classification and Advances in Controlled Release and Bioavailability
Daniel Andrés Real, Karen Bolaños, Josefina Priotti, Nicolás Yutronic, Marcelo J. Kogan, Rodrigo Sierpe, Orlando Donoso-González
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167 Novel Selectively Targeted Multifunctional Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Prostate Cancer Treatment
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168 The Evaluation of Drug Delivery Nanocarrier Development and Pharmacological Briefing for Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD): An Update
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169 In Vitro Studies on Nasal Formulations of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN)
Cláudia Pina Costa,Sandra Barreiro,João Nuno Moreira,Renata Silva,Hugo Almeida,José Manuel Sousa Lobo,Ana Catarina Silva
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170 Dermal Drug Delivery of Phytochemicals with Phenolic Structure via Lipid-Based Nanotechnologies
Viliana Gugleva,Nadezhda Ivanova,Yoana Sotirova,Velichka Andonova
Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(9): 837
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171 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Carriers for the Synthetic Opioid LP2: Characterization and In Vitro Release
Angelo Spadaro, Lorella Pasquinucci, Miriam Lorenti, Ludovica Maria Santagati, Maria Grazia Sarpietro, Rita Turnaturi, Carmela Parenti, Lucia Montenegro
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172 Ezetimibe-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Based Formulation Ameliorates Hyperlipidaemia in an Experimental Model of High Fat Diet
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173 Lipidic Matrixes Containing Clove Essential Oil: Biological Activity, Microstructural and Textural Studies
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174 Advanced Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Systems and Their Cellular Evaluation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
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175 Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanomicelles Enhance SAHA Efficacy in 3D Endometrial Cancer Models
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176 Do Lipid-based Nanoparticles Hold Promise for Advancing the Clinical Translation of Anticancer Alkaloids?
Jian Sheng Loh, Li Kar Stella Tan, Wai Leng Lee, Long Chiau Ming, Chee Wun How, Jhi Biau Foo, Nurolaini Kifli, Bey Hing Goh, Yong Sze Ong
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177 Design, Preparation, and Characterization of Effective Dermal and Transdermal Lipid Nanoparticles: A Review
Dima Khater,Hamdi Nsairat,Fadwa Odeh,Mais Saleh,Areej Jaber,Walhan Alshaer,Abeer Al Bawab,Mohammad S. Mubarak
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178 Trends in Nanotechnology and Its Potentialities to Control Plant Pathogenic Fungi: A Review
Abdulaziz Bashir Kutawa,Khairulmazmi Ahmad,Asgar Ali,Mohd Zobir Hussein,Mohd Aswad Abdul Wahab,Abdullahi Adamu,Abubakar A. Ismaila,Mahesh Tiran Gunasena,Muhammad Ziaur Rahman,Md Imam Hossain
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179 An Overview on Topical Administration of Carotenoids and Coenzyme Q10 Loaded in Lipid Nanoparticles
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180 Beyond DNA-targeting in Cancer Chemotherapy. Emerging Frontiers - A Review
Simon N. Mbugua,Lydia W. Njenga,Ruth A. Odhiambo,Shem O. Wandiga,Martin O. Onani
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2021; 21(1): 28
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181 Nanostructured Lipid Carrier–Mediated Transdermal Delivery of Aceclofenac Hydrogel Present an Effective Therapeutic Approach for Inflammatory Diseases
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Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021; 12
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182 Can Nimesulide Nanoparticles Be a Therapeutic Strategy for the Inhibition of the KRAS/PTEN Signaling Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer?
Roseane Guimarães Ferreira,Luis Eduardo Mosquera Narvaez,Kaio Murilo Monteiro Espíndola,Amanda Caroline R. S. Rosario,Wenddy Graziela N. Lima,Marta Chagas Monteiro
Frontiers in Oncology. 2021; 11
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183 Polymers Blending as Release Modulating Tool in Drug Delivery
Parisa Ghasemiyeh, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani
Frontiers in Materials. 2021; 8
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184 Protein-Based Nanohydrogels for Bioactive Delivery
Subhash Chander,Giriraj T. Kulkarni,Neerupma Dhiman,Harsha Kharkwal
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2021; 9
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185 Viral Mimicry as a Design Template for Nucleic Acid Nanocarriers
Ina F. de la Fuente,Shraddha S. Sawant,Mark Q. Tolentino,Patrick M. Corrigan,Jessica L. Rouge
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2021; 9
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186 Pharmaceutical evaluation of atorvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers incorporated into the gelatin/hyaluronic acid/polycaprolactone scaffold for the skin tissue engineering
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187 Exosomal delivery of therapeutic modulators through the blood–brain barrier; promise and pitfalls
Morteza Heidarzadeh,Yasemin Gürsoy-Özdemir,Mehmet Kaya,Aysan Eslami Abriz,Amir Zarebkohan,Reza Rahbarghazi,Emel Sokullu
Cell & Bioscience. 2021; 11(1)
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188 Drug Delivery of Natural Products Through Nanocarriers for Effective Breast Cancer Therapy: A Comprehensive Review of Literature
Kah Min Yap, Mahendran Sekar, Shivkanya Fuloria, Yuan Seng Wu, Siew Hua Gan, Nur Najihah Izzati Mat Rani, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Chandrakant Kokare, Pei Teng Lum, M Yasmin Begum, Shankar Mani, Dhanalekshmi Unnikrishnan Meenakshi, Kathiresan V Sathasivam, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2021; Volume 16: 7891
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189 Herbal Nanoformulations for Asthma Treatment
Jing Yang, Bo Song, Junzi Wu
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2021; 27
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190 Challenges in Oral Drug Delivery and Applications of Lipid Nanoparticles as Potent Oral Drug Carriers for Managing Cardiovascular Risk Factors
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Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2021; 22(7): 892
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191 Application of Poloxamers for the Development of Drug Delivery System to Treat Leishmaniasis: A Review
Audrey Silva, Amanda Costa, Sona Jain, Eduardo Coelho, Ricardo Fujiwara, Ricardo Scher, Rogéria Nunes, Silvio Dolabella
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192 Formulation and Evaluation of Valsartan Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
M. Chandana,M. Venkata Ramana,N. Rama Rao
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193 Nanophytomedicines for the Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome: A Pharmacological and Biopharmaceutical Review
Zeinab Nouri,Marziyeh Hajialyani,Zhila Izadi,Roodabeh Bahramsoltani,Mohammad Hosein Farzaei,Mohammad Abdollahi
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2020; 8
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194 Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery for Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease
Chengming Fan,Jyotsna Joshi,Fan Li,Bing Xu,Mahmood Khan,Jinfu Yang,Wuqiang Zhu
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2020; 8
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195 Lipid-based Nanoplatforms in Cancer Therapy: Recent Advances and Applications
Kuldeep Rajpoot
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196 Nanolipoidal a-terpineol modulates quorum sensing regulated virulence and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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197 Orally Administered Nanotherapeutics For Parkinson’s Disease: An Old Delivery System Yet More Acceptable
Nidhi Aggarwal,Zufika Qamar,Saleha Rehman,Sanjula Baboota,Javed Ali
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2020; 26(19): 2280
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Potential of Nanoparticles as Permeation Enhancers and Targeted Delivery Options for Skin: Advantages and Disadvantages

Parisa Ghasemiyeh,Soliman Mohammadi-Samani
Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2020; Volume 14: 3271
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Recent Advances in Designing 5-Fluorouracil Delivery Systems: A Stepping Stone in the Safe Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

Elaheh Entezar-Almahdi,Soliman Mohammadi-Samani,Lobat Tayebi,Fatemeh Farjadian
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2020; Volume 15: 5445
[Pubmed] | [DOI]

Oral Nano Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Available Administration Strategy for Antidiabetic Phytocompounds

Xin Nie,Zhejie Chen,Lan Pang,Lin Wang,Huajuan Jiang,Yi Chen,Zhen Zhang,Chaomei Fu,Bo Ren,Jinming Zhang
International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2020; Volume 15: 10215
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201 Novel biomimetic nanostructured lipid carriers for cancer therapy: preparation, characterization, and in vitro/in vivo evaluation
Jianwen Zhou,Biru Guo,Wenquan Zhu,Xiaoyu Sui,Xiaoxing Ma,Jiayi Qian,Lixin Cao,Cuiyan Han
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology. 2020; : 1
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  1. Introduction
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