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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 129-140

The effects of Benjakul extract and its isolated compounds on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H226


1 Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; Center of Excellence in Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research (CEATMR), Thammasat University, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand
3 Center of Excellence in Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research (CEATMR); Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
4 Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Agricultural Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada
5 Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Correspondence Address:
Arunporn Itharat
Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; Center of Excellence in Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research (CEATMR), Thammasat University, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-5362.310520

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Background and purpose: Benjakul, a traditional Thai formulation for cancer treatment, is composed of five plants. This study aimed to assess the cytotoxicity of Benjakul, its five plants, and its isolated compounds against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Experimental approach: Analyses of cell cycle and membrane asymmetry changes were performed with different fluorescent dyes and analyzed by flow cytometry in NCI-H226 cells. Activation of caspase-3 was measured using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay kit. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was used in analyses of cell cycle and caspase-3 activity. Findings/Results: Benjakul exhibited cytotoxicity against NSCLC with IC50 between 5.56-5.64 μg/mL. Among its five ingredients, Benjakul displayed the highest selectivity with selectivity index values ranging from 2.93 to 6.88, with the exception of Plumbago indica, indicating its protective effects. Plumbagin and 6- shogaol displayed the highest cytotoxicity and underwent molecular studies in NCI-H226 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that Benjakul and 6-shogaol dose-dependently induced G2/M phase arrest, and plumbagin dose-dependently induced S-G2/M phase arrest with the highest percentage in early incubation time (12-24 h). At the highest doses, Benjakul extract, 6-shogaol, and plumbagin time-dependently increased the population of sub-G1 apoptotic cells with the highest percentage in longer incubation time (60-72 h). Similarly, membrane asymmetry changes showed time-dependent increases in the percentage of early and late apoptotic cells. Moreover, the apoptosis-inducing effect of Benjakul, 6-shogaol, and plumbagin at the highest dose, via the caspase cascade was confirmed by time-dependent induction of caspase-3 activity, followed by its complete reduction and abolished sub-G1 peaks upon addition of Z-VAD-FMK. Conclusion and implication: Our findings demonstrated for the first time the effects of Benjakul and its compounds on S-G2/M or G2/M phase arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis in lung cancer cells.


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