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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-February 2021
Volume 16 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-117

Online since Wednesday, December 30, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Preparation and characterization of ethylcellulose microspheres for sustained-release of pregabalin p. 1
Haya Yasin, Bashar Al-Taani, Mutaz Sheikh Salem
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305184  
Background and purpose: Pregabalin is used in the treatment of epilepsy, chronic pain, and other psychological disorders. Preparation of pregabalin in the sustained-release formulation will enhance patient compliance and reduce the incidence of side effects. The aim of this study was to prepare sustained-release microspheres for pregabalin utilizing ethylcellulose and evaluate the processing factors that influence the fabrication and the performance of the prepared microspheres. Experimental approach: The microspheres were prepared using the water-oil-oil double emulsion solvent evaporation method. Microspheres were characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. The influence of the processing variables on the characteristics of the prepared microspheres was studied. Microspheres solid-state characterization performed using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Findings/Results: The results described in the context of the current work illustrated the suitability of the water-oil-oil system in the preparation of sustained-release microspheres for pregabalin. The optimum formulation was prepared at a drug to polymer ratio of 1:3 w/w, stirring speed of 600 rpm, surfactant concentration of 1.5%, and external phase volume of 150 mL. This formula produced microspheres particle size in the range 600-1000 μm, with 87.6% yield, and 80.14 ± 0.53% encapsulation efficiency. Drug release from the microspheres was found to be diffusion controlled, with a pH-independent behavior. Conclusion and implication The current work presented a successful attempt to fabricate a sustained-release microsphere comprising pregabalin. This will help overcome the frequent dosing problems with conventional pregabalin dosage forms and improve product performance.
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Immunomodulatory effects of standardized extract of Curcuma mangga val. on cytokines, antibody and delayed-type hypersensitivity response in Wistar rats p. 16
Yuandani , Sony Eka Nugraha, Lia Laila, Denny Satria
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305185  
Background and purpose: Recently, we have highlighted the immunomodulatory activity of Curcuma mangga Val. on phagocytosis ability. The current study was conducted to determine the immunomodulatory effects of the standardized extract of C. mangga rhizomes by in vitro and in vivo studies. Experimental approach: The C. mangga extract was standardized according to a guideline for herbal preparation. The extract was investigated for its immunomodulatory effects on gene expression of cytokines, cytokines and antibody production as well as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The gene expression of cytokines on lipopolysaccharide-induced-RAW 264.7 cells was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The effect of the extract on DTH response was investigated by the paw edema method, meanwhile the effects of the extract on antibody and cytokine production from normal and cyclophosphamide-induced Salmonella typhimurium infected rats were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Findings/Results: The extract of C. mangga demonstrated an inhibitory effect on gene expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6 as compared to lipopolysaccharide-induced cells. The extract also depicted inhibitory activity on IL-4 production as compared to the negative control. Whereas, the DTH response and production of immunoglobulin G from both groups after treatment with C. mangga extract were higher than those of negative control (P < 0.05). Conclusion and implications: The results indicated that the C. mangga extract has immunomodulatory effects, emphasizing its potential to be developed as immunotherapeutic agent.
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Prodigiosin induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell p. 26
Maryam Niakani, Ahmad Majd, Parviz Pakzad, Hassan Malekinejad
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305186  
Background and purpose: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as a myeloproliferative disease is characterized by increased cellularity of bone marrow. Implementing the latest treatment protocols is currently accompanied by serious and life-threatening side effects. There are worldwide attempts to find new effective and potent therapeutic agents with minimal side effects on CML patients. This in vitro study was carried out to discover the potential antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of naturally produced prodigiosin (PDG) on K562 cells as an accepted model of CML. Experimental approach: The anti-proliferative effect of PDG was measured by MTT assay. To highlight the mechanism of cytotoxicity, the apoptotic cell death pathway was investigated by morphological and biochemical assessments. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining technique and western blotting method were applied to assess the mechanism of the potential apoptotic impact of PDG on K562 cells. Findings/Results: PDG-induced time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effects were revealed with an estimated IC50 value of 54.06 μM. The highest cell viability reduction (60%) was recorded in cells, which were exposed to 100 μM concentration. Further assays demonstrated that in the dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining method the cell population in the late apoptosis phase was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which was confirmed with remarkable DNA fragmentation. Conclusion and implications: We found that the PDG-induced apoptosis in K562 cells is mediated through the caspase-3 activation both in mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggest that PDG could be a potent compound for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies in the in vivo model of CML.
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Synthesis, antioxidant activity, and density functional theory study of some novel 4-[(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl]phenol derivatives: a comparative approach for the explanation of their radical scavenging activities p. 35
Mohammad hossein Asgarshamsi, Afshin Fassihi, Farshid Hassanzadeh, Lotfollah Saghaei, Ahmad Movahedian Attar, Hossein Mohammad-Beigi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305187  
Background and purpose: Radicals produced by Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions play detrimental roles in our body. Some oxidized proteins as toxic configurations are identified in amyloid-β deposits. These deposits mostly occur in conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we report the synthesis, evaluation of the antioxidant activity, and implementation of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of some4- [(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino) methyl]phenol derivatives. The aim of this study was to provide a comparative theoretical-experimental approach to explain the antioxidant activities of the compounds. Experimental approach: Compounds were synthesized by the reaction between para hydroxybenzaldehyde and aminobenzothiazole derivatives. The scavenging activity of the compounds was evaluated. Various electronic and energetic descriptors such as high occupied molecular orbital and low unoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps, bonding dissociation enthalpy of OH bond, ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, and spin density of the radical and neutral species were calculated. DFT calculations with B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311++ G** basis set in the polarizable continuum model were utilized to obtain these descriptors. Findings/Results: Ascorbic acid showed the best DPPH scavenging activity. However, 4d and 4c showed promising antioxidant activity. The values of EHOMO for 4c and 4d were closer to zero, thus, they showed the best scavenging activities. The computational results were in accordance with the experimental ones. The energetic descriptors indicated that the sequential proton loss-electron transfer mechanism is preferred over other mechanisms. Conclusion and implication: Antioxidant activity of 4-[(Benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino) methyl]phenol derivatives confirmed by experimental and theoretical documents proves them as novel antioxidants against amyloid-β based disease.
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The potential neuroprotective roles of olive leaf extract in an epilepsy rat model induced by kainic acid p. 48
Safoura Khamse, Saeed Mohammadian Haftcheshmeh, Seyed Shahabeddin Sadr, Mehrdad Roghani, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Parvane Mohseni Moghaddam, Ravieh Golchoobian, Fatemeh Ebrahimi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305188  
Background and purpose: Epilepsy is recognized as a chronic neurologic disease. Increasing evidence has addressed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles of olive leaf extract (OLE) in neurodegenerative diseases. So, the current study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective roles of OLE in epilepsy. Experimental approach: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups including a control group, sham group, kainic acid (KA) group, and KA + OLE group. KA (4 μg/rat) was injected intrahippocampal, and OLE (300 mg/kg) was orally administrated for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed, and their hippocampi were isolated. KA- induced seizure activity was recorded. Oxidative stress index was assessed by measuring its indicators including malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, nitrate, and glutathione (GSH) as well as the catalase (CAT) activity. The supernatant concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the apoptosis rate in neurons were measured. Findings/Results: Treatment with OLE significantly reduced the seizure score. OLE decreased oxidative stress index by reducing the concentration of MDA, nitrite, and nitrate as well as increasing the level of GSH. OLE had a significant anti-apoptotic effect on neurons. However, CAT activity and the level of TNF-α were not affected. Conclusion and implications: Our findings indicated neuroprotective properties of OLE, which is mainly mediated by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, therefore, could be considered as a valuable therapeutic supplement for epilepsy.
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Interactions and effects of food additive dye Allura red on pepsin structure and protease activity; experimental and computational supports p. 58
Fatemeh Balaei, Mohabbat Ansari, Negin Farhadian, Sajad Moradi, Mohsen Shahlaei
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305189  
Background and purpose: Today, color additives such as Allura red (AR) are widely used in different kinds of food products. Pepsin is a globular protein that is secreted as a digestive protease from the main cells in the stomach. Because of the important role of pepsin in protein digestion and because of its importance in digestive diseases the study of the interactions of pepsin with chemical food additives is important. Experimental approach: In this study, the interactions between AR and pepsin were investigated by different computational and experimental approaches such as ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy along with computational molecular modeling. Findings/Results: The experimental results of fluorescence indicated that AR can strongly quench the fluorescence of pepsin through a static quenching. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding phenomena suggests that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding played a major role in the complex formation. The results of synchronous fluorescence spectra and furrier transformed infra-red (FTIR) experiments showed that there are no significant structural changes in the protein conformation. Also, examined pepsin protease activity revealed that the activity of pepsin was increased upon ligand binding. In agreement with the experimental results, the computational results showed that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions occurred between AR and binding sites. Conclusion and implications: From the pharmaceutical point of view, this interaction can help us to get a deeper understanding of the effect of this synthetic dye on food digestion.
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Protective effects of a standardized extract of Iris germanica on pancreas and liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 71
Mohammad Reza Mahdinezhad, Sara Hooshmand, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Shirin Taraz Jamshidi, Sajad Ehtiati, Ahmad Ghorbani
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305190  
Background and purpose: Previous studies have shown the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and hypolipidemic activities of Iris germanica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Iris germanica rhizomes on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Experimental approach: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups including a normal control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated for 4 weeks with 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of the Iris germanica extract (IGE). Findings/Results: Induction of diabetes significantly decreased the body weight gain and considerably increased the serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Diabetes also diminished the antioxidant capacity of the liver (decrease of thiol groups) and significantly degenerated pancreatic islands. The IGE at both doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of glucose, triglyceride, AST, ALT, and ALP. Moreover, IGE increased the total antioxidant capacity of the liver and ameliorated pancreatic island morphology. The extract had no significant effect on body weight and BUN level. Conclusion and implication: These findings suggest that Iris germanica rhizomes inhibits the progression of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia and has protective effects against diabetes-induced injury of the liver and pancreas. Therefore, this plant has the potential to be used as a natural product for controlling diabetes.
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Chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles in active and passive microchannels p. 79
Mona Akbari, Zohreh Rahimi, Masoud Rahimi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305191  
Background and purpose: In recent years, the interest in chitosan nanoparticles has increased due to their application, especially in drug delivery. The main aim of this work was to find a suitable method for simulating pharmaceutical nanoparticles with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and use it for understanding the process of nanoparticle formation in different types of microchannels. Experimental approach: Active and passive microchannels were compared to find the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Twenty-eight experiments were done on microchannels to quantify the effect of 4 parameters and their interactions on the size and polydispersity index (PDI) of nanoparticles. CFD was implemented by coupling reactive kinetics and the population balance method to simulate the synthesis of chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles in the microchannel. Findings/Results: The passive microchannel had the best performance for nanoparticle production. The most uniform microspheres and the narrowest standard deviation (124.3 nm, PDI = 0.112) were achieved using passive microchannel. Compared to the active microchannel, the size and PDI of the nanoparticles were 28.7% and 70.5% higher for active microchannels, and 55.43% and 105.3% higher for simple microchannels, respectively. Experimental results confirmed the validity of CFD modeling. The growth and nucleation rates were determined using the reaction equation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate. Conclusion and implications: CFD modeling by the proposed method can play an important role in the prediction of the size and PDI of chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles in the same condition and provide a new perspective for studying the production of nanoparticles by numerical methods.
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Protective and therapeutic effects of ethanolic extract of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and vitamin E against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats p. 94
Sanaz Ramezani, Iraj Javadi, Esmaeel Panahi Kokhdan, Navid Omidifar, Jafar Nikbakht, Heibatollah Sadeghi, Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Nazanin Danaei, Reza Abbasi, Hossein Sadeghi
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305192  
Background and purpose: Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease of the lungs caused by inflammation, species of reactive oxygen, and immune defects. Antioxidant properties of Nasturtium officinale has been reported in some studies. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Nasturtium officinale (EENO) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Experimental approach: Forty adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups. Normal control, BLM control received a single dose of BLM (6 IU/kg) intratracheally only on the first day, EENO + BLM group received EENO (500 mg/kg) one week before intratracheal BLM instillation and two weeks afterward, BLM + EENO group and BML + vitamin E group received EENO (500 mg/kg) and vitamin E (500 mg/kg) half-hour after BLM installation, respectively. The animals were sacrificed on day 22. Change in body weight, lung index, serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolite, lung tissue hydroxyproline content and lung pathology were assessed. Findings/Results: Pre- or post-treatment with EENO attenuated pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by normalized lung index, improved histological changes and inhibited collagen deposition (hydroxyproline) in the animal lung. EENO also decreased MDA and NO metabolite release in comparison to the BLM control. vitamin E (500 mg/ kg) also significantly inhibited the BLM-induced lung toxicity. Conclusions and implications: EENO can prevent BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats via antioxidant activities. However, more studies are needed to elicit the exact mechanism of this effect.
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Development and characterization of a nano-drug delivery system containing vasaka phospholipid complex to improve bioavailability using quality by design approach p. 103
Sundaresan Nandhini, Kaliappan Ilango
DOI:10.4103/1735-5362.305193  
Background and purpose: Vasicine is a potential bronchodilator and can be used for the effective management of asthma and bronchitis. It has low absorption in the gastrointestinal tract due to its poor solubility thereby low bioavailability. The objective of this research was to develop a novel drug delivery system of vasaka extract to improve its bioavailability by enhancing the solubility and absorption of vasicine. Experimental approach: Vasaka-loaded phytosomes were developed and optimized by thin-layer hydration technique using systematic quality by design approach. Box-Behnken design (32 factorial design) using Design-Expert software was employed to optimize phytosome wherein phosphatidylcholine concentration (X1), stirring temperature (X2), and stirring time (X3) were selected as independent variables. Yield (%), particle size (nm), and entrapment efficiency (%) were evaluated as responses. The optimized phytosome was characterized by studying the surface morphology such as FE-SEM and TEM analysis, thermal characteristics by thermal gravimetric analysis and spectral and diffraction studies by FTIR and XRD analysis and studying the dissolution behaviour of phytosome by in vitro release study. Findings/Results: The percentage yield, particle size, and entrapment efficiency values of the phytosomes were found in the range of 30.03-97.03%, 231.0-701.4 nm, and 20.02-95.88% w/w, respectively. The optimized phytosome showed the zeta potential of -23.2 mV exhibited good stability and SEM and TEM analysis revealed the spherical shape and smooth particles with the uniform particle size distribution of phytosomes. The comparative in vitro drug release study of vasaka extract and phytosome revealed the sustained release characteristics of phytosome which reached 68.80% at 8 h compared to vasaka extract reached a maximum of 45.08% at 4 h. Conclusion and implication: The results highlighted the importance of optimization of formulation development using quality by design strategy to achieve consistent quality of pharmaceutical products.
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